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Environmental Stewardship & Energy Conservation

1

How much energy of today’s total US energy demand is consumed by wastewater treatment?

% of total current US energy consumption. Your answer is correct Try again

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2

How much energy of a typical municipality is consumed for wastewater treatment?

Approx. 35% of total electrical energy consumption constituting the single largest operating budget position for most municipalities.

3

How much electrical power / energy of the total wastewater treatment process is consumed bythe activated sludge process / in the aeration basin?

55% consumed for the most part by the blower & aeration system providing oxygen transfer and mixing energy to the biological aerobic digestion / activated sludge process.

4

What is the proven track record of energy conservation, improved, and predictable effluent, TN, TP results of the JAEGER AERATION’s OxyProcessTM, its diffuser equipment, and aeration system solutions in of case studies and before and after comparisons?

  • 30% Energy Reduction at the activated sludge process / in the aeration basin.
  • Improved, and predictable effluent, TN, TP results.

5

How much of the US’ total energy demand was consumed in 2017 for electric power generation?

Approx. 38%.

6

How may municipal wastewater treatment facilities exist in the United States?

Approx. 17,000.

7

How much of the US’ today’s total electric power generation could be conserved by employing OxyProcessTM technology?

Up to 2% of total.

8

What is the currently commonly employed municipal wastewater treatment year 1 to year. 20+ sizing and capacity planning scheme?

    Currently common designs & planning schemes are I.e. based on but not limited to:
  • Yr. 1 to yr. 20+ Projected per capita loading of domestic wastewater characteristics such as bio-chemical oxygen demand (bod), chemical oxygen demand (cod), solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and hydraulic flow
  • Typical residential diurnal patterns, seasonal (i.e. summer, & winter) and peak nutrient loading, air & water temperatures, hydraulic flow events
  • Plus safety factors

see home page & product page for reference

9

How does OxyProcessTM differ from currently commonly employed municipal wastewater treatment year 1 to year. 20+ sizing and capacity planning schemes? How can it improve energy efficiency by 20% to 40%?

    OxyProcessTM incorporates all the above to meet or exceed maximum plant capacity sizing requirement. In addition, it incorporates a nutrient loading driven process control scheme. Allowing for 20% to 40 % energy conversation / utility cost savings over the Yr. 1 to yr. 20+ operating cycle enabled by:
  • Up to 16:1 system turn down capability.
  • Organic loading driven process controls and optimization.
  • Separate oxygen uptake / aeration from mixing energy for suspended solids.

see home page & product page for reference

10

What is the turn down range of a 2m long OxyStripTM diffuser and of Dual-Air-ControlTM system?

    8:1
  • A 2m long OxyStripTM diffuser has a dynamic / load controlled balancing orifice design allowing a system airflow turn down of 8:1 or 3.0 – 36.0 Nm 3 /h [2-22.0 SCFM] per diffuser.
    16:1
  • Dual-Air-ControlTM allowing for a system airflow turn down of 16:1 or 3.0 – 72.0 Nm 3 /h [2-44.0 SCFM] per diffuser.

see home page & product page for reference

11

What is the turn down range of a commonly used 9” diameter disc diffuser system and why? Can organic loading driven process controls and optimization be realized?

2:1

or 1.2 to 2.4 Nm 3 /h [0.75 to 1.5 SCFM] per diffuser.
Large scale fixed grid installations of 9” diameter disc diffuser systems require aeration grid balancing which is achieved by limiting and restricting the air flow to each diffuser with a pin hole or 6mm to 8mm [1/4” to 5/16”] fixed orifice.

  • System airflows below min. -> partial aeration of the aeration grid, grid collapse, and clogging of diffuser membranes in the long-term.
  • System airflows greater max. -> exponential increase of backpressure.

12

What is the energy conservation potential of common large-scale fixed grid installations of 9” diameter disc diffuser systems by replacing them with OxyStripTM , Dual-Air-ControlTM , and/or OxyProcessTM?

30%

13

What is the turn down range of a commonly used fixed grid tubular diffuser systems and why? Can organic loading driven process controls and optimization be realized?

3:1

or 4 to 12 Nm3/h [2.4 to 8.0 SCFM] 1.2 to 2.4 [0.75 to 1.5 SCFM] per 1m tube diffuser. Tube diffuser systems require aeration grid balancing which is achieved by limiting and restricting the air flow to each diffuser with a fixed orifice.

  • System airflows below -> partial aeration of the aeration grid, grid collapse, and clogging of diffuser membranes in the long-term.
  • System airflows greater max. -> exponential increase of backpressure.

14

What should the minimum recommended turn down range of a blower & aeration system be? What is it based on?

    8:1 Based on nutrient loading, hydraulic flow, temperature patterns:
  • 2:1 - residential diurnal
  • 4:1 – annual and Yr. 1 to yr. 20+ projected
  • 2:1 - volatility i.e. extreme weather events; seasonal industries: agriculture, hospitality

15

How does temperature affect the wastewater treatment plant performance / the activated sludge process?

Ambient air and water temperatures influence the oxygen solubility in water [mg/l] & the oxygen concentration [ppm] in ambient air.
I.e. @ sea level:
Dissolved O2 in water: 9.2 mg/l @ 20o C; 7.4 mg/l @ 30o C
O2 Concentration in ambient air: 20.3 ppm @ 23o C; 19.9 ppm @ 30.5o C

16

How do prolonged summers and elevated temperatures effect the wastewater treatment plant performance, the activated sludge process, & effluent water quality?

The plant may become oxygen deficient reducing its nutrient removal capacity, effluent water quality will decrease, discharge permits limits potentially will not be met. Solutions: Short term: The OxyPODTM system Long term: Increase system turn down capabilities, OxyProcessTM

see home page & product page for reference

17

What are the Fine Bubble Membrane Aeration - Waste Water Treatment (WWT) Objectives?

    WWT activated sludge stage – aerobic & anaerobic stages
  • Removal of - Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD / CBOD)
  • Providing of - Mixing Energy
  • Removal of – Nitrogen - a Biological Nutrient
  • Removal of – Phosphorus - a Biological Nutrient

18

How does BOD removal work? - Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD / CBOD)

  • Activated sludge systems are used to break down organic solids in wastewater by aerobic digestion from microorganisms (biomass). The organisms are then recycled and the remaining products are treated water and waste solids.
  • Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD) is the amount of carbon-based organic matter in the water that is biodegradable and it is measured as BOD.
  • Since this organic matter depletes oxygen in the water the goal is to remove the organic solids in the water and lower the BOD level. This is also known as BOD removal.
  • The level of BOD is controlled so the final decanted water can be released into streams or rivers.

19

What is the basic equation for treating BOD with the activated sludge process?

BOD + O2 + Bacteria → CO2 + H2O
BOD + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water

20

Why is Mixing required in the activated sludge process? - Mixing Energy- Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids / Mixing Energy req. to keep solids suspended

  • Since the microorganisms use oxygen to break down the suspended solids (SS), oxygen must be introduced into the mixture of water and solids. This mixture is called Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS).
  • The amount of oxygen must be great enough for the biomass to break down the solids in the resident time in the waste tank.
  • In order to maximize the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water (DO) we look at oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE). The more oxygen, the better the biomass can feed and maintain the proper biomass to solids ratio, F:M. The organisms and solids form into an aggregate called floc.

21

Why do have Nitrogen and Phosphorus to be removed from the wastewater (WW) before discharging treated wastewater to the environment?

  • Nitrogen and Phosphorus are nutrients that can promote the growth of noxious algae In surface waters that receive treated waste water.

22

What other pollutants are removed in the activated sludge phase of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)?

  • Ammonia
  • Another demand of oxygen in an activated sludge process is created by oxidizing ammonia to nitrates [Nitrification].

23

How does Nitrification in aerated / aerobic zone or process phase work / what is the general formula:

  • Sequence 1: Bacteria oxidize ammonia to nitride while consuming Oxygen
    2NH4 + 3O2 → 2NO2 + 2H2O + 4H
    Ammonia Oxygen Nitrite Water Strong Acid (Ammonium form)
  • Sequence 2: Bacteria oxidize nitride Nitrate
    2NO2 + O2 → 2NO3
    Nitrite + Oxygen → Nitrate

24

What is the next WWT process phase after Nitrification to remove Nitrogen?

  • De-Nitrification takes place in a unaerated / anoxic zone, BNR, or SBR [Sequencing Batch Reactor] sequence. The Nitrate [NO 3 ] from the nitrification zone/sequence is feed back to / mixed with the activated sludge aerobic zone / SBR sequence
  • Basic equation for de-nitrification is
    BOD + NO3 (or NO2) + 4H+ → CO2 + N2 + H2O
    BOD + Nitrate (or Nitrite) + Strong Acid → Carbon Dioxide + Nitrogen Gas + Water

25

How des Phosphorus removal work?

    Phosphorus [P] Removal:
  • Anaerobic Zone / Sequence → Aerobic Zone / Sequence [though in SBR – mostly chemical treatment added like ferric chloride]
  • Bacteria + P → P increase → Bacteria + P → P Reduction